Today virtually every high school in the United States fields a basketball team in varsity competition. 19 Basketball's popularity remains high, both in rural areas where they carry the identification of the entire community, as well as at some larger schools hippie known for their basketball teams where many players go on to participate at higher levels of competition after graduation. In the 201617 season, 980,673 boys and girls represented their schools in interscholastic basketball competition, according to the national Federation of State high School Associations. 20 The states of Illinois, indiana and Kentucky are particularly well known for their residents' devotion to high school basketball, commonly called hoosier Hysteria in Indiana; the critically acclaimed film hoosiers shows high school basketball's depth of meaning to these communities. There is currently no tournament to determine a national high school champion. The most serious effort was the national Interscholastic Basketball tournament at the University of Chicago from 1917 to 1930. The event was organized by Amos Alonzo stagg and sent invitations to state champion teams.
College basketball was rocked by gambling scandals from 1948 to 1951, when dozens of players from top teams were implicated in match fixing and point shaving. Partially spurred by an association with cheating, the nit lost support to the ncaa tournament. High school basketball see also: List. High school basketball national player of the year awards A basketball game between the heart mountain and Powell High School girls teams, wyoming, march 1944 Before widespread school district consolidation, most American high schools were far way smaller than their present-day counterparts. During the first decades of the 20th century, basketball quickly became the ideal interscholastic sport due to its modest equipment and personnel requirements. In the days before widespread television coverage of professional and college sports, the popularity of high school basketball was unrivaled in many parts of America. Perhaps the most legendary of high school teams was Indiana's Franklin Wonder five, which took the nation by storm during the 1920s, dominating Indiana basketball and earning national recognition.
In 1901, colleges, including the University of Chicago, columbia university, cornell University, dartmouth College, the University of Minnesota, the. Naval Academy, the University of Colorado and Yale University began sponsoring men's games. In 1905, frequent injuries on the football field prompted President Theodore roosevelt to suggest that colleges form a governing body, resulting in the creation of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (iaaus). In 1910, that body would change its name to the national Collegiate Athletic Association (ncaa). The first Canadian interuniversity basketball game was played at the ymca in Kingston, ontario on February 6, 1904, when McGill University - naismith's alma mater - visited queen's University. McGill won 97 in overtime; the score was 77 at the end of regulation play, and a ten-minute overtime period settled the outcome. A good turnout of spectators watched the game. 18 The first men's national championship tournament, the national Association of Intercollegiate basketball tournament, which still exists as the national Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (naia) tournament, was organized in 1937. The first national championship for ncaa teams, the national Invitation tournament (NIT) in New York, was organized in 1938; the ncaa national tournament would begin one year later.
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Basketball's early adherents were dispatched to ymcas throughout the United States, and it quickly spread through the United States and Canada. By 1895, it was well established at several women's high schools. While the ymca was responsible for initially developing and spreading the game, within a decade it discouraged the new sport, as rough play and rowdy crowds began to detract from the ymca's primary mission. However, other amateur sports clubs, colleges, and professional clubs quickly filled the void. In the years before world War i, the Amateur Athletic Union and the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (forerunner of the ncaa ) vied for control over the rules for the game. The first pro league, the national Basketball league, was formed in 1898 to protect players from exploitation and to promote a less rough game.
This league only lasted five years. James naismith was instrumental in establishing college basketball. Beamis fielded the first college basketball team just a year after the Springfield ymca game at the suburban Pittsburgh Geneva college. 14 naismith himself later coached essays at the University of Kansas for six years, before handing the reins to renowned coach Forrest "Phog" Allen. Naismith's disciple Amos Alonzo stagg brought basketball to the University of Chicago, while Adolph Rupp, a student of naismith's at Kansas, enjoyed great success as coach at the University of Kentucky. On February 9, 1895, the first intercollegiate 5-on-5 game was played at Hamline University between Hamline and the School of Agriculture, which was affiliated with the University of Minnesota. The School of Agriculture won in a 93 game.
10 The baskets were originally nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference; it had the additional effect of allowing rebound shots. 11 naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before. Frank mahan, one of the players from the original first game, approached naismith after the Christmas break, in early 1892, asking him what he intended to call his new game. Naismith replied that he hadn't thought of it because he had been focused on just getting the game started.
Mahan suggested that it be called "Naismith ball at which he laughed, saying that a name like that would kill any game. Mahan then said, "Why not call it basketball?" naismith replied, "We have a basket and a ball, and it seems to me that would be a good name for." 12 13 The first official game was played in the ymca gymnasium in Albany, new. The game ended at 10; the shot was made from 25 feet (7.6 m on a court just half the size of a present-day streetball or National Basketball Association (NBA) court. At the time, football was being played with 10 to a team (which was increased to 11). When winter weather got too icy to play football, teams were taken indoors, and it was convenient to have them split in half and play basketball with five on each side. By teams of five became standard. College basketball see also: College basketball The 1899 University of Kansas basketball team, with James naismith at the back, right.
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Passing the for ball was the hazlitt primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a major part of the game around the 1950s citation needed, as manufacturing improved the ball shape. The peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were finally replaced by metal hoops with backboards. A further change was soon made, so the ball merely passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got the most points won the game.
In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, and balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored; this proved inefficient, however, so the bottom of the basket was removed, 6 allowing the balls to be poked out. Old style basketball with laces Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball. These round balls from " association football " were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in. 7 8 These laces could cause bounce passes and dribbling to be unpredictable. 9 eventually a lace-free ball construction method was invented, and this change to the game was endorsed by naismith. (Whereas in American football, the lace construction proved to be advantageous for gripping and remains to this day.) The first balls made specifically for basketball were brown, and it was only in the late 1950s that Tony hinkle, searching for a ball that would. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates.
sport and attract top national teams from around the world. Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like euroBasket and fiba ameriCup. The fiba women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball tournament feature top national teams from continental championships. The main North American league is the wnba ( ncaa women's division i basketball Championship is also popular whereas strongest European clubs participate in the euroleague women. Contents History main article: History of basketball Creation In early december 1891, canadian. James naismith, 4 a physical education professor and instructor at the International young Men's Christian Association Training School 5 ( ymca ) (today, springfield College ) in Springfield, massachusetts, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot (3.0 m) elevated track.
Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running (dribbling) or by passing it to a paper teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots—the lay-up, the jump shot, or a dunk ; on defense, they may steal the ball from a dribbler, intercept passes, or block shots; either offense or defense may collect a rebound, that is, a missed shot. It is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands then resume dribbling. The five players on a each side at a time fall into five positions player positions : the tallest player is usually the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a slightly shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, and. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, and one-on-one. Basketball is one of the world's most popular and widely viewed sports. 1 The national Basketball Association (NBA) is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries, talent, and level of competition.
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This article is about the sport. For the ball used in the sport, see. For other uses, see, basketball (disambiguation). Basketball, invented in 1891 by,. James naismith, is a team sport in which ten players, five on a side, book opposing one another on a rectangular court, have in play the primary objective to shoot a basketball (approximately.4 inches (24 cm) in diameter) through the defender's hoop (a basket 18 inches. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws. The team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play (overtime) is mandated.