sean Martin has noted that the writing newspaper was created largely as a response to the antisemitic climate immediately following the first World War. This view seems to be consistent with correspondence held by The central Archives of the history of the jewish people, in Jerusalem. This is correspondence dated 1919 with the polish army which prohibited the distribution of Nowy dziennik because of accusations in it that the army had been responsible for the recent pogroms in lvóv. 28 The pages of Nowy dziennik include some of the most detailed information about Jewish life in Kraków, and articles written by the communitys most prominent Jewish leaders, including Abraham Ozjasz Thon (1870-1936 and Chaim Hilfstein (1871- a physician, zionist activist, and co-founder and President. It follows that, in recent years, there has been more comment about Nowy dziennik than any other publication circulating in the Kraków Jewish community. For example a good half of sean Martins essay on the jewish Press in the interwar period is devoted to this one publication. By way of further example one can mention the article The political Thought of the zionist Nowy dziennik in its Early period, july 19 by janusz fałowski. The twin aims of the publication are stated to be firstly, national autonomy for Jews living in Poland and, secondly the establishment of a jewish homeland in a reflection of the importance of this newspaper, it is a source of recent research into various aspects.
Publications included specialist professional journals such as The bulletin of the Association of Jewish good Lawyers in the Kraków Advocates Chamber, and the Chemical Periodical (Czasopismo Chemiczne). Additionally there were publications which catered for trade and industry, for example Przegląd Kupiecki and rękodzieło Przemysl. 23 An article on the jewish press in Kraków in the interwar period by the same author, czesław Brzoza, is also to be found in volume 7 of Polin. 24 The works of czesław Brzoza and others were considered by Dr Sabina Kwiecień (April) in her paper The jewish Press in Polish in Kraków in the years This paper can be read in Polish or English at /article/viewFile/1036/pdf, though the English google translation. The paper emphasises the number of publications and the range of topics and interests which were covered. Other works by Dr Kwiecień include The jewish Press in Kraków during the nazi occupation 26 and Manifestations of Cultural Life in the Kraków Ghetto in the light of Jewish Newspapers. Napoleon Telz (1866-1942) bought a printing house in Kraków in 1895. His publications included dziennik poranny and later the paper of the political party pps, dziennik krakowski. 27 Whilst the number and variety of publications reflected the diversity of the jewish community, the fact remains that Nowy dziennik had by far the largest readership. .
This was published for a period of over 15 years under the editorship of Samuel Probst. 19 The yiddish work Tsvishn beyde velt-Milchomes by Isaac Schwartzbart 20 includes a chapter Unser Wochbletter which describes various publications including Nasza tribuna, tzofim and, of course, nowy dziennik. The book also includes a chapter concerning the polish press and the jewish community in Kraków. The number and variety of publications catering for the jewish community has been noted by sean Martin, and others such as czesław Brzoza. The latter author wrote jewish Periodicals in Cracow (1918-1939). This work includes an Appendix listing a bibliography. . In the same publication 21 is an article by Ewa bąkowska listing and describing the inventory of Jewish Press in the holdings of the jagiellonian Library. The appendix prepared by czesław Brzoza lists some 176 publications, though as previously noted, some of these appeared for only a short period of time, or as single issues. .
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Various issues of these publications can be viewed on line at the national Library of Israel at /sites/JPress/English/Pages Nowy dziennik was the only daily jewish newspaper in Kraków during the interwar period, and in current times is possibly the best known publication. Despite the zionist influence of Nowy dziennik, and the hebrew Secondary School, publications in the hebrew language were few in number and the majority were short lived. Having said that, the weekly publication haMitzpe was a zionist and general paper which appeared from 1904 to 1921. to the outbreak of World War ii the Association of zionists-revisionists, led by zew Żabotyński, published a polish language weekly Trybuna narodowa in Kraków. 16 Some journals catering for zionist youth published in the hebrew language but with Polish transliteration rather than Hebrew letters.
The socialist and Yiddishist movement, The bund, published its journal in Polish. . However there was an linking active press in the yiddish language, despite the prevalence of Polish in the interwar Kraków community. This is described in some detail in the work by sean Martin, and particularly in the chapter entitled The yiddishist reaction to Assimilation: Religious and Cultural Responses. Martin notes that most of the yiddish titles were single issue publications and socialist zionist in political orientation. On the other hand he points out that even within the context of the yiddish press there was a division between those publications attracting traditionally religious Yiddish speakers, and those attracting Jewish intellectuals, and those directed to the zionist section of the community. 18 Despite the observation that most Yiddish titles were single issue publications, one should note the exception, dos Yidishe vort.
The third paper was the bundist daily, naye folkstsaitung (New peoples gazette) which was a yiddish paper published in Warsaw. Additionally, the author read. 11, this was a non Jewish illustrated weekly for children, first published in 1917. Nevertheless, by the year 1918, the jewish community of Kraków had developed a diversity of newspapers and magazines of its own which reflected a full range of political, religious and social views. One the most detailed accounts of the Press during the interwar period is the second chapter in a work jewish Life in Cracow, by sean Martin. Dr Martin points out that an aim of the jewish Press was to enable individuals to affiliate with the jewish community in their different ways.
These different ways were reflected in the use of language, whether Polish, yiddish or Hebrew. 13, many publications sought to emphasise the jewish national identity of their readers, whether in the context of life in Poland, or in the context of zionism. From time to time this resulted in contradictions. For example, the editor of the yiddish publication. Dos Yidishe vort supported the hebrew Gimnazjum or Secondary School 14 whilst the zionist paper Nowy dziennik encouraged its readers to show Hebrew as their native language in the 1931 census returns, even though the paper was published in the polish language. Examples of Hebrew newspapers which were published in Kraków include haMagid and the religious zionist weekly haMitzpe.
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9, in this second work reference is made to the beauty growing sense of Polish nationalism following the end of the first World War. This resulted in a remarkable increase in the number of Jewish authors writing in Polish. Some of them dealt with general or Polish topics, whilst others wrote about Jewish issues or for the jewish audience. 10, the Press, as in Jewish communities today, the jews of Kraków, with the exception of the most orthodox, did not limit their reading to the jewish press. Neither did they restrict themselves to newspapers which were published in Kraków. For example the family of one author regularly read three publications. Nowy dziennik which is described below. Naprzód (Forward the Kraków edition of the official daily organ of the polish Socialist Party.
Some of the authors showed remarkable creativity, even resume when surrounded by destruction. The period which is covered, 1918 to 1948, on the other hand is an easier aspect to understand. The first date coincides with the end of the first World War and the establishment of the independent Polish Republic. The year, 1948, has been chosen so that recognition can be given to testimonies which were written during the holocaust and published shortly afterwards. Of course many books and articles relating to the jewish community of Kraków have been written since 1948 but they fall outside the scope of this article. 7, jewish literature in Kraków in the period covered by this article can be considered against the wider background of Polish Jewish Literature in the Interwar years. This is the title of a book by eugenia prokop-Janiec. 8, further information is available from the work jewish Polish Writers in Cracow between the Two world Wars by the same author.
the work of Jewish authors. The notable exception is the work. Apteka w Getcie krakowskim (The Pharmacy in the Kraków Ghetto) by Mgr Tadeusz pankiewicz which was first published in 1947. Conversely the term Jewish literature does not include, for the purposes of this article, all that was written by non-Jewish authors even though their writings may have had a significant or even profound effect on the jewish community. In particular, the extensive writings of the nazi authorities fall outside the scope of the article. If, then, jewish literature is not adequately defined, it must be conceded that what is mentioned below, and what is omitted, must largely depend on the authors judgement. It can be said, however, that the literature to which reference is made encompasses the Press, poetry, and Testimony, and a wide range of academic papers.
Many people may believe that pdf the recording of Holocaust testimony has been a relatively recent activity, undertaken mainly by elderly survivors. However, a second conclusion that is reached in this paper is that the recording process started during the holocaust itself in the form of diaries kept during the german occupation. Some of this testimony was published in 19Some authorities have noted that in the twentieth century the Kraków Jewish community was more polonised than in other cities. For example in Kraków, unlike warsaw or Łódz, hassidic Jews speaking flawless Polish (as well as Yiddish) were a common feature of the landscape. 4, furthermore, kraków seems to have been an exception among Polish cities. Anti-semitism was less acute here and the majority of Jews spoke polish and felt a strong affinity to polish culture, while also preserving their Jewish identity. 5, it follows that any conclusions that can be reached from this article may well not apply to other Polish cities. Almost certainly they do not apply to most Jewish communities which lived in villages and small towns.
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Jewish Literature In Kraków, geoffrey weisgard, introduction, as is well known, for several centuries Kraków was the capital city of Poland. As such, it attracted a large and diverse jewish community. . The jewish population grew from about 26,000 at the beginning of the twentieth century to mba about 60,000 at the commencement of the holocaust. A wide variety of literature is one of the features which is therefore to be associated with the community, and its wide range of cultural groups. 2, the purpose of this article is to give the reader an indication of the nature and scope of the material that is available. One conclusion that can be reached from what is said below, is that not even the holocaust completely stemmed the flow of creative writing within the jewish community. Indeed, such literature, including diaries and poetry together with the recording of testimony, continued after the war. If anything put a stop to jewish literature in Kraków it was the activity of the communist authorities which contributed to waves of Jewish emigration in the post war period. Another major factor contributing to emigration was, of course, the creation of the State of Israel.