Weak forms edit The title saint before a person's name has a weak form in BrE but not AmE: before vowels, /sənt/. 48 Miscellaneous pronunciation differences edit These tables list words pronounced differently but spelled the same. See also the table of words with different pronunciation reflected in the spelling. Single differences edit words with multiple points of difference mom of pronunciation are in the table after this one. Accent -based differences are ignored. For example, moscow is rp mɒskəʊ and GAm mɑskaʊ, but only the /oʊ/ /aʊ/ difference is highlighted here, since both the ɒɑ difference and the rp use of əʊ rather than oʊ are predictable from the accent. Also, ti a ra is listed with AmE /æ/ ; the marrymerryMary merger changes this vowel for many Americans. Some AmE types are listed as /ɒ/ where gam merges to /ɑ/.
Morphine ) and sometimes /ɪn/ (e.g. Some words have variable pronunciation within Bre, or within Ame, or between BrE and AmE. Generally, amE add is more likely to favor /in/ or /ɪn/, and BrE to favor /aɪn/. BrE /aɪn/, amE (1) /in/ : carbine A2, Florentine A2, philistine A2, pristine B2 nb 27, saline A2, serpentine. BrE /aɪn/, amE (1) /in/ (2) /ɪn/ : adamantine. BrE /aɪn/, amE /ɪn/ : uterine. BrE /aɪn/, amE (1) /ɪn/ (2) /aɪn/ (3) /in/ : crystalline, labyrinthine. 47 BrE (1) /in/, amE (1) /aɪn/ (2) /ɪn/ : strychnine.
AmE will (unlike bre, except when indicated withB2) have a reduced last vowel: generally in facile, (in)fertile, fissile, fragile, missile, stabile (adjective sterile, tensile, versatile, virile, volatile usually in agile, decile, ductile, 42 futile, hostile, juvenile, (im)mobile (adjective phone nubile, projectile, puerile, servile, tactile, utile. Nb 26 textile never in crocodile, exile, gentile, reconcile ; nor to compounds of monosyllables (e.g. Turnstile from stile ). In some words the pronunciation /il/ also comes into play: BrE /aɪl/, amE /il/ : camomile A1, mercantile A2, mobile /stabile (decorations) BrE /il/, amE /ɪl/ or /əl/ : imbecile. BrE /ɪl/, amE /il/ : rutile (Bre, amE also /aɪl/ ). 45 Related endings -ility, -ilize, -iliary are pronounced the same in AmE as BrE. Di- edit The pronunciation of the vowel of the prefix di- in words such as dichotomy, digest (verb digress, dilate, dilemma, dilute, dimension, direct, dissect, disyllabic, diverse, divest, and divulge as well as their derivational forms vary between /aɪ/ and /ɪ/ or /ə/ in both. 46 :237 -ine edit The suffix -ine, 7 when unstressed, is pronounced sometimes /aɪn/ (e.g. Feline sometimes /in/ (e.g.
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Citation needed ) Where the syllable preceding -ary, -ery, -ory, -mony or -ative is stressed however, AmE also usually reduces the vowel: /əri/, /məni/. Exceptions include library, 37 primary A2, 38 rosemary. 39 (Pronouncing library as /laɪbɛri/ rather than /laɪbrɛri/ is stigmatized in the United States, for example as associated with African-American Vernacular English, 40 whereas in BrE, /laɪbri/ is common in rapid or casual speech.) The suffix -berry is pronounced by similar rules, except that. Thus we have strawberry : BrE /strɔbəri/, amE /strɔbɛri/, and whortleberry : BrE/AmE /wɔrtəlbɛri/. The placename component -bury (e.g.
Canterbury ) has room a similar difference: AmE has a full vowel: /bɛri/ where BrE has a reduced one: /bəri/. Note that stress differences between the dialects occur with some words ending in -atory (listed above ) and a few others like capillary (included in Miscellaneous stress above). Formerly the BrEAmE distinction for adjectives carried over to corresponding adverbs ending -arily, -erily or -orily. However, nowadays some BrE speakers adopt the AmE practice of shifting the stress to the antepenultimate syllable: militarily is thus sometimes /mɪlɪtɛrɪli/ rather than /mɪlɪtərəli/, and necessarily is in Bre either /nɛsəsərɪli/ or /nɛsəsɛrɪli/. 41 -ile edit words ending in unstressed -ile derived from Latin adjectives ending -ilis are mostly pronounced with a full vowel in BrE /aɪl/ but a reduced vowel or syllabic l in AmE /əl/ (e.g. Fertile rhymes with fur tile dolphin in BrE but with furtle in AmE).
Alternate, prospect see initial-stress-derived noun. The following table lists words not brought up in the discussion so far where the main difference between AmE and BrE is in stress. Usually it also follows a reduction of the unstressed vowel. Words marked with subscript a or b are exceptions to this, and thus retains a full vowel in the (relatively) unstressed syllable of AmE or BrE. A subsequent asterisk, means that the full vowel is usually retained; a preceding * means that the full vowel is sometimes retained.
Words with other points of difference are listed in a later table. BrE AmE words with relevant syllable stressed in each dialect 1 1st 2nd Balthazar a, cerebral/cerebrumA2, converseA2 (adj. 29 illustrativea2, omegaa, patinaA1, stalactiteA2, stalagmiteA2, suez a2 subalternA2, thanksgivingABB2, transferenceAA2, Ulysses A 2nd 1st ancillaryb, archangelB1, augustine ba2, catenary, controversyB1, corollary, defence/offenseAA2 (sport deficitB1, nb 22 fritillary, guffawA1, 30 marshmallowab, nb 23 miscellany, nb 24 patronal, predicative, pretence/pretenseAA1, princess*AA2, saxophonistBB2, spread(-)eagledab, 31 substratumABA2, tracheaab2. BrE reduces the vowel to a schwa or even elides it completely: /əri/ or /ri/, /məni/ and /ətɪv/ -ative. So military is AmE /mɪlətɛri/ and BrE /mɪlɪtəri/ or /mɪlɪtri/, 33 inventory is AmE /ɪnvəntɔri/ and BrE /ɪnvəntəri/, 34 testimony is AmE /tɛstəmoʊni/ and BrE /tɛstɪməni/ 35 and innovative is AmE /ɪnoʊveɪtɪv/ or /ɪnəveɪtɪv/ and BrE /ɪnəvətɪv/. 36 (The elision is avoided in carefully enunciated speech, especially with endings -rary, -rery, -rory.
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Derived nouns in -ator retains wood the distinction, but those in -ation do not. Also, migratory B1 20 and vibratory B1 21 sometimes retain the distinction. Most longer -ate verbs are pronounced the same in AmE and BrE, but a few have first-syllable stress in BrE and second-syllable stress in AmE: elongate aa2, infiltrate A2, remonstrate abA2, 22 tergiversate aa1. 23 For some derived adjectives ending -atory stress-shifting to -a(tory)- occurs in BrE. Among these cases are celebratory a 24 (BrE: /sɛlɪbreɪtəri/ compensatory a, gpa 25 participatory a, 26 regulatory ab1. 27 AmE stresses the same syllable as the corresponding -ate verb (except compensatory, where AmE stresses the second syllable). A further -atory difference is laboratory B2: AmE /læbərətɔri/ and BrE /ləbɒrətəri/. 28 Miscellaneous stress edit There are a number of cases where same-spelled noun, verb and/or adjective have uniform stress in one dialect but distinct stress in the other (e.g.
French loanwords that differ in revolution stress only are listed below. BrE AmE words with relevant syllable stressed in each dialect 1 1st last barragea, nb 1 batonab bereta nb 2, bidet, blaséA2, bouffantA2, nb 3 brasserieb, brassiereab, brevetabA2, 2 brochurebB2 nb 4 3 buffeta, nb 5 4 cachetA2, café*a*b, caffeineA2, canardaB1, 5 chagrina, chaletA2, cliché*a. Also some French names, including: Degas, dijon, 9 Dumas, 10 Manet, 11 Monet, nb 13 12 Renault a, nb 14 13 Rimbaud. Nb 15 14 2nd last attaché, consomméa, cor anglaisB2, décolleté, déclassé, démodé, 15 denouement, distingué, escargot, exposé, fiancé(e)A2, nb 16 financier, retroussé. Also some French names, including: Debussy b, dubonnet. Last 1st addressbA1 (noun decadebB1, nb 17 16 esquireb*A2, magazineA2, mayonnaiseA2 tiradeA2, (bi)p)artisana. B1/2 nb 18 2nd 1st artisanalA1, liaisonabA2* nb 19, macraméab, renaissance ab nb 20 Verbs ending in ate edit most 2-syllable verbs ending -ate have first-syllable stress in AmE and second-syllable stress in BrE. This includes castrate, cremate A2, 17 dictate A2, donate A2, locate A2, migrate, narrate bA2, placate bB2, prostrate, pulsate, rotate, serrate A2, spectate, striate, 18 translate A1, vacate b*A2, 19 vibrate. Examples where AmE and BrE match include create, debate, equate, elate, negate ; and mandate and probate with first-syllable stress.
accents of English speakers. Differences in the pronunciation of individual words in the lexicon (i.e. In this article, transcriptions use received Pronunciation (RP) to represent BrE and General American (GAm) to represent AmE. In the following discussion: superscript A2 after a word indicates that the BrE pronunciation of the word is a common variant in AmE. Superscript B2 after a word indicates that the AmE pronunciation of the word is a common variant in BrE. Superscript A1 after a word indicates that the pronunciation given as BrE is also the most common variant in AmE. Superscript B1 after a word indicates that the pronunciation given as AmE is also the most common variant in BrE. Contents 1 Stress 2 Affixes.1.2 -ile.3 di-.4 -ine 3 weak forms 4 Miscellaneous pronunciation differences 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading, subscript a or b means that the relevant unstressed vowel is also reduced to /ə/ or /ɪ/ in AmE. French stress edit for many loanwords from French where AmE has kept the original French final-syllable stress, BrE stresses an earlier syllable.
Early 15c., "to regain, take back mid-15c., "recommence, continue, begin again after interruption from Middle French resumer (14c.) and directly from Latin resumere "take again, take up again, assume again from re- "again" (see re- ) sumere "take up" (cf. Meaning "begin again" is mid-15c. Intransitive sense "proceed after interruption" is from 1802. Also résumé, 1804, "a summary from French résumé, noun use mom of past participle of Middle French resumer "to sum up from Latin resumere (see resume (v.). Meaning "biographical summary of a person's career" is 1940s. Show More, online Etymology dictionary, 2010 douglas Harper. Word of the day magisterial. Differences in pronunciation between, american English (AmE) and, british English (BrE) can be divided into differences in accent (i.e. Phoneme inventory and realisation ).
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17951805; m Unabridged, based on the random house Unabridged Dictionary, random house, inc. British Dictionary definitions book for résumé noun a short descriptive summary, as of events. Us and Canadian another name for curriculum vitae, show More, word Origin, c19: from French, from résumer to resume verb to begin again or go on with (something adjourned or interrupted) (tr) to occupy again, take back, or recoverto resume one's seat; to resume possession. Show More, derived Formsresumable, adjectiveresumer, noun, word Origin, c15: from Latin resūmere to take up again, from re- sūmere to take. Collins English Dictionary - complete unabridged 2012 Digital Edition. William Collins Sons. Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012. Word Origin and History for résumé.